Cover of Swarm Intelligence Book
Andries P Engelbrecht Fundamentals of Computational Swarm Intelligence

Particle Swarm Optimization References

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M.A. Abido. : Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimachine Power System Stabilizer Design. In Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, pages 1346--1351, 2001.

M.A. Abido. : Optimal Design of Power System Stabilizers using Particle Swarm Optimization. in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 17(5):406--413, 2002.

M.A. Abido. : Optimal Power Flow using Particle Swarm Optimization. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 24(7):563--571, 2002.

D.K. Agrafiotis and W. Cedeno. : Feature Selection for Structure-Activity Correlation using Binary Particle Swarms. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Fourth International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, and the Fourth Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, pages 1849--1853, 2003.

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B. Al-Kazemi and C.K. Mohan. : Training Feedforward Neural Networks using Multi-Phase Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Neural Information Processing, volume 5, pages 2615--2619, 2002.

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P.J. Angeline. : Using Selection to Improve Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 84--89. IEEE Press, 1998.

T. Bartz-Beielstein, P. Limbourg, J. Mehnen, K. Schmitt, K.E. Parsopoulos, and M.N. Vrahatis. : Particle Swarm Optimizers for Pareto Optimization with Enhanced Archiving Techniques. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 1780--1787, 2003.

U. Baumgartner, C. Magele, and W. Reinhart. : Pareto Optimality and Particle Swarm Optimization. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 40(2):1172--1175, 2004.

T. Beielstein, K.E. Parsopoulos, and M.N. Vrahatis. : Tuning PSO Parameters through Sensitivity Analysis. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund, 2002.

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T.M. Blackwell and P.J. Bentley. : Dynamic Search with Charged Swarms. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 19--26, 2002.

T.M. Blackwell and P.J. Bentley. : Improvised Music with Swarms. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1462--1467, May 2002.

D. Braendler and T. Hendtlass. : Improving Particle Swarm Optimisation using the Collective Movement of the Swarm. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, in press.

D. Braendler and T. Hendtlass. : The Suitability of Particle Swarm Optimization for Training Neural Hardware. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Industrial and Engineering, Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 2358, pages 190--199. Springer-Verlag, 2002.

B. Brandstatter and U. Baumgartner. : Particle Swarm Optimization-Mass-Spring System Analogon. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 38(2):997--1000, 2002.

R. Brits. : Niching Strategies for Particle Swarm Optimization. Master's thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2002.

R. Brits, A.P. Engelbrecht, and F. van den Bergh. : Niche Particle Swarm Optimization. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2005.

R. Brits, A.P. Engelbrecht, and F. van den Bergh. : A Niching Particle Swarm Optimizer. In Proceedings of the Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning, pages 692--696, 2002.

R. Brits, A.P. Engelbrecht, and F. van den Bergh. : Solving Systems of Unconstrained Equations using Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, volume~3, pages 102--107, Oct 2002.

R. Brits, A.P. Engelbrecht, and F. van den Bergh. : Scalability of NichePSO. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 228--234. IEEE Press, 2003.

A. Carlisle. : Applying the Particle Swarm Optimizer to Non-Stationary Environments. PhD thesis, Auburn University, 2002.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : Adapting Particle Swarm Optimization to Dynamic Environments. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 429--434, 2000.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : An Off-the-Shelf PSO. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization, pages 1--6, 2001.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : Tracking Changing Extrema with Particle Swarm Optimizer. Technical report, CSSE01-08, Auburn University, 2001.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : Tracking Changing Extrema with Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimizer. In Proceedings of the Fifth Biannual World Automation Congress, pages 265--270, 2002.

W. Cedeno and D.K. Agrafiotis. : Application of Niching Particle Swarms to QSAR and QSPR. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Symposium on QSAR, 2002.

W. Cedeno and D.K. Agrafiotis. : Combining Particle Swarms and k-Nearest Neighbors for the Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship. International Journal of Computer Research, 11(4):443--452, 2002.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : An Off-the-Shelf PSO. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization, pages 1--6, 2001.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : Tracking Changing Extrema with Particle Swarm Optimizer. Technical report, CSSE01-08, Auburn University, 2001.

A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. : Tracking Changing Extrema with Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimizer. In Proceedings of the Fifth Biannual World Automation Congress, pages 265--270, 2002.

W. Cedeno and D.K. Agrafiotis. : Application of Niching Particle Swarms to QSAR and QSPR. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Symposium on QSAR, 2002.

W. Cedeno and D.K. Agrafiotis. : Combining Particle Swarms and k-Nearest Neighbors for the Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship. International Journal of Computer Research, 11(4):443--452, 2002.

W. Cedeno and D.K. Agrafiotis. : Using Particle Swarms for the Development of QSAR Models Based on k-Nearest Neighbor and Kernel Regression. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, 17(2-4):255--263, 2003.

G. Ciuprina, D. Ioan, and I. Munteanu. : Use of Intelligent-Particle Optimization in Electromagnetics. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, volume~38, pages 1037--1040, 2002.

M. Clerc. : The Swarm and the Queen: Towards a Deterministic and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume~3, pages 1951--1957, July 1999.

M. Clerc. : Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Illustrated by the Traveling Salesman Problem. Technical report, 2000.

M. Clerc. : Think Locally, Act Locally: The Way of Life of Cheap-PSO, an Adaptive PSO. Technical report, 2001.

M. Clerc and J. Kennedy. : The Particle Swarm-Explosion, Stability, and Convergence in a Multidimensional Complex Space. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6(1):58--73, 2002.

G. Coath and S.K. Halgamuge. : A Comparison of Constraint-Handling Methods for the Application of Particle Swarm Optimization to Constrained Nonlinear Optimization Problems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 4, pages 2419--2425, 2003.

A.R. Cockshot and B.E. Hartman. : Improving the Fermentation Medium for Echinocandin B Production Part II: Particle Swarm Optimization. Process Biochemistry, 36:661--669, 2001.

J.P. Coelho, P.B. De Moura Oliveira, and J. Boa Ventura Cunha. : Non-Linear Concentration Control System Design using a New Adaptive PSO. In Proceedings of the 5th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control, 2002.

J.P. Coelho, P.M. Oliveira, and J.B. Cunha. : Greenhouse Air Temperature Control using the Particle Swarm Optimisation Algorithm. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth Triennial World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control, 2002.

C.A. Coello Coello and M.S. Lechuga. : MOPSO: A Proposal for Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1051--1056, 2002.

C.A. Coello Coello, E.H.N. Luna, and A.H.N. Aguirre. : Use of Particle Swarm Optimization to Design Combinational Logic Circuits. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 2606, pages 398--409. Springer-Verlag, 2003.

C.A. Coello Coello, G. Toscano Pulido, and M. Salazar Lechuga. An Extension of Particle Swarm Optimization that can Handle Multiple Objectives. In Workshop on Multiple Objective Metaheuristics, 2002.

C.A. Coello Coello, G.T. Pulido, and M.S. Lechuga. : Handling Multiple Objectives with Particle Swarm Optimization. Technical report, Departemento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN, 2002.

A. Conradie, R. Miikkulainen, and C. Aldrich. : Adaptive Control Utilizing Neural Swarming. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 60--67, 2002.

A. Conradie, R. Miikkulainen, and C. Aldrich. : Intelligent Process Control utilising Symbolic Memetic Neuro-Evolution. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 623--629, 2002.

R.C. Eberhart and X. Hu. : Human Tremor Analysis using Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 3, pages 1927--1930, July 1999.

R.C. Eberhart and J. Kennedy. : A New Optimizer using Particle Swarm Theory. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Micromachine and Human Science, pages 39--43, 1995.

R.C. Eberhart and Y. Shi. : Evolving Artificial Neural Networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Neural Networks and Brain, pages PL5--PL13, 1998.

R.C. Eberhart and Y. Shi. : Comparing Inertia Weights and Constriction Factors in Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 1, pages 84--88, July 2000.

R.C. Eberhart and Y.xi ~Shi. : Particle Swarm Optimization: Developments, Applications and Resources. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 1, pages 27--30. IEEE Press, 2001.

R.C. Eberhart and Y. Shi. : Tracking and Optimizing Dynamic Systems with Particle Swarms. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 1, pages 94--100, 2001.

A.I. El-Gallad, M.E. El-Hawary, A.A. Sallam, and A. Kalas. : A Particle Swarm Optimizer for Constrained Economic Dispatch with Prohibited Operating Zones. In Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pages 78--81, 2002.

A.I. El-Gallad, M.E. El-Hawary, A.A. Sallam, and A. Kalas. : A Swarm-Intelligently Trained Neural Network for Power Transformer Protection. In Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pages 265--269, 2002.

A.I. El-Gallad, M.E. El-Hawary, A.A. Sallam, and A. Kalas. : Enhancing the Particle Swarm Optimizer via Proper Parameters Selection. In Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pages 792--797, 2002.

H. El-Mounayri, Z. Dugla, and H. Deng. : Predicting Surface Roughness in End-Milling using An Innovative Technique from EC. In ASME - International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition; Symposium on Process Planning and Process Optimization, 2002.

H. El-Mounayri, Z. Dugla, and H. Deng. : Predicting of Surface Roughness in End Milling using Swarm Intelligence. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium 2003(SIS 2003), pages 220--227, 2003.

H. El-Mounayri, M.H. Gadallah, and J. Briceno. : Enhanced Modeling and Optimization of Milling using a Hybrid Technique. In Transactions of the Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineering, volume 26, pages 178--199, 2002.

H. El-Mounayri, H. Kishawy, and V. Tandon. : Optimized CNC End-Milliing: A Practical Approach. In International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, volume~15, pages 453--470, 2002.

H.M. Emara, M.E. Anmar, A. Bahgat, and H.T. Dorrah. : Stator Fault Estimation in Induction Motors using Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE International on Electric Machines and Drives Conference, pages 1469--1475, 2003.

A.P. Engelbrecht and A. Ismail. : Training Product Unit Neural Networks. Stability and Control: Theory and Applications, 2(1-2):59--74, 1999.

A.A.A. Esmin, A.R. Aoki, and G. Lambert-Torres. : Particle Swarm Optimization for Fuzzy Membership Functions Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pages 108--113, 2002.

S.C. Esquivel and C.A. Coello Coello. : On the Use of Particle Swarm Optimization with Multimodal Functions. In Proceedings of the IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1130--1136, 2003.

H-Y. Fan. : A Modification to Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. Engineering Computations, 19(7-8):970--989, 2002.

J.E. Fieldsend and S. Singh. : A Multi-Objective Algorithm Based upon Particle Swarm Optimisation. In Proceedings of the UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, pages 37--44, 2003.

J.E. Fieldsend and S. Singh. : On the Selection of gbest, lbest and pbest Individuals, the use of Turbulence and the Impact of Inertia in Multi-Objective PSO, 2003.

P.C. Fourie and A.A. Groenwold. : The Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in Size and Shape Optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 23(4):259--267, 2002.

N. Franken. : PSO-Based Coevolutionary Game Learning. Master's thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2004.

N. Franken and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Comparing PSO Structures to Learn the Game of Checkers from Zero Knowledge. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 234--241, 2003.

N. Franken and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Evolving Intelligent Game-Playing Agents. South African Computer Journal, 32:44--52, 2004.

N. Franken and A.P. Engelbrecht. : PSO Approaches to Co-Evolve IPD Strategies. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 356--363. IEEE Press, 2004.

N. Franken and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Investigating Binary PSO Parameter Influence on the Knights Cover Problem. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2005.

N. Franken and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Particle Swarm Optimisation Approaches to Co-evolve Strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, December 2005.

Y. Fukuyama. : State Estimation and Optimal Setting of Voltage Regulator in Distribution Systems. In IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, pages 930--935, 2001.

Y. Fukuyama, S. Takayama, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Yoshida. : A Particle Swarm Optimization for Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Electric Power Systems. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 1523--1528, 1999.

Y. Fukuyama and H. Yoshida. : A Particle Swarm Optimization for Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Electric Power Systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 1, pages 87--93, 2001.

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D. Gies and Y. Rahmat-Samii. : Particle Swarm Optimization for Reconfigurable Phase-Differentiated Array Design. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 38(3):168--175, 2003.

D. Gies and Y. Rahmat-Samii. : Reconfigurable Antenna Array Design using Parallel PSO. In Proceedings of the IEEE Society International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pages 177--180, 2003.

V.G. Gudise and G.K. Venayagamoorthy. : Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization and Backpropagation as Training Algorithm s for Neural Networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 110--117, 2003.

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T. Hendtlass. : A Combined Swarm Differential Evolution Algorithm for Optimization Problems. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 2070, pages 11--18. Springer-Verlag, 2001.

T. Hendtlass. : Preserving Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimisation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (2718):31--40, 2003.

T. Hendtlass and M. Randall. : A Survey of Ant Colony and Particle Swarm Meta-Heuristics and Their Application to Discrete Optimization Problems. In Proceedings of the Inaugural Workshop on Artificial Life, pages 15--25, 2001.

H. Higashi and H. Iba. : Particle Swarm Optimization with Gaussian Mutation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 72--79, 2003.

R.J.W Hodgson. : Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Atomic Cluster Optimization Problem. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 68--73, 2002.

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X. Hu, R.C. Eberhart, and Y. Shi. : Particle Swarm with Extended Memory for Multiobjective Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 193--197, 2003.

X. Hu, R.C. Eberhart, and Y. Shi. : Swarm Intelligence for Permutation Optimization: A Case Study on $n$-Queens Problem. In Proceedings of IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 243--246, 2003.

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A. Ismail. : Training and Optimization of Product Unit Neural Networks. Master's thesis Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2001.

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A. Ismail and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Global Optimization Algorithms for Training Product Unit Neural Networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, volume 1, pages 132--137, 2000.

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H-M. Jiang, K. Xie, and Y-F. Wang. : Design of Multi-Pumped Fiber Amplifier by Particle Swarm Optimization. Journal of Optoelectronics Laser, 15(10):1190--1193, 2004.

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J. Kennedy. : Stereotyping: Improving Particle Swarm Performance with Cluster Analysis. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1507--1512, 2000.

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J. Kennedy and R. Mendes. : Neighborhood Topologies in Fully-Informed and Best-of-Neighborhood Particle Swarms. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, pages 45--50, June 2003.

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C.A. Koay and D. Srinivasan. : Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Approach for Generator Maintenance Scheduling. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 167--173, 2003.

T.xi ~Krink, J.S. Vesterstrom, and J. Riget. : Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension. In Proceedings of the Fourth Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1474--1479, 2002.

T. Krink and M. Lovberg. : The Life Cycle Model: Combining Particle Swarm Optimisation, Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbers. In Proceedings of the Parallel Problem Solving from Nature Conference, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 2439, pages 621--630. Springer-Verlag, 2002.

R.A. Krohling, H. Knidel, and Y. Shi. : Solving Numerical Equations of Hydraulic Problems using Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 1688--1690, 2002.

E.C. Laskari, K.E. Parsopoulos, and M.N. Vrahatis. : Particle Swarm Optimization for Integer programming. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1582--1587. IEEE Press, 2002.

E.C. Laskari, K.E. Parsopoulos, and M.N. Vrahatis. : Particle Swarm Optimization for Minimax Problems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1576--1581, 2002.

X. Li and K.H. Dam. : Comparing Particle Swarms for Tracking Extrema in Dynamic Environments. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 3, pages 1772--1779, 2003.

M.Lovberg : Improving Particle Swarm Optimization by Hybridization of Stochastic Search Heuristics and Self-Organized Criticality. Master's thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Aarhus, Denmark, 2002.

M. Lovberg and T. Krink. : Extending Particle Swarm Optimisers with Self-Organized Criticality. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1588--1593, 2002.

M. Lovberg, T.K. Rasmussen, and T. Krink. : Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimiser with Breeding and Subpopulations. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 469--476, 2001.

W.Z. Lu, H-Y. Fan, and S.M. Lo. : Application of Evolutionary Neural Network Method in Predicting Pollutant Levels in Downtown Area of Hong Kong. Neurocomputing, 51:387--400, 2003.

R. Mendes, P. Cortez, M. Rocha, and J. Neves. : Particle Swarms for Feedforward Neural Network Training. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, pages 1895--1899, 2002.

R. Mendes, J. Kennedy, and J. Neves. : Watch thy Neighbor or How the Swarm can Learn from its Environment. In Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pages 88--94, 2003.

L. Messerschmidt and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Learning to Play Games using a PSO-Based Competitive Learning Approach. In Proceedings of the Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning, pages 444--448, 2002.

L. Messerschmidt and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Learning to Play Games using a PSO-Based Competitive Learning Approach. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 8(3):280--288, 2004.

V. Miranda and N. Fonseca. : EPSO -- Best-of-two-worlds Meta-heuristic Applied to Power System Problems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 2, pages 1080--1085, 2002.

V. Miranda and N. Fonseca. : EPSO -- Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization, a New Algorithm with Applications in Power Systems. In Proceedings of the Asia Pacific IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition, volume 2, pages 745--750, 2002.

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S. Naka, T. Genji, T. Yura, and Y. Fukuyama. : A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Distribution State Estimation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 18(1):60--68, 2003.

S. Naka, T. Genji, T. Yura, Y. Fukuyama, and N. Hayashi. : Distribution State Estimation Considering Nonlinear Characteristics of Practical Equipment using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization. In International Conference on Power System Technology 2000, pages 1083--1088, 2000.

M. Omran, A. Salman, and A.P. Engelbrecht. : Image Classification using Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning, pages 370--374, 2002.

M.G. Omran, A.P. Engelbrecht, and A. Salman. : A PSO-Based End-Member Selection Method for Spectral Unmixing of Multispectral Satellite Images. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2004.

M.G. Omran, A.P. Engelbrecht, and A. Salman. : Dynamic Clustering using Particle Swarm Optimization with Application in Image Segmentation. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 2004.

M.G. Omran, A.P Engelbrecht, and A. Salman. : Image Classification using Particle Swarm Optimization. In K.C. Tan, M.H. Lim, X.~Yao, and L.~Wang, editors, Recent Advances in Simulated Evolution and Learning, Advances in Natural Computation, volume 2, pages 347--365. World Scientific, 2004.

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